ECTS & Grading

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) 
is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits that are equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of study in all countries respective of standard or qualification type and is used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. > more informationECTS Users' Guide

Academic Grading (more information)

Austria, PLUS & CUAS
(Austrian grading scaleAccording to the modalities for examinations outlined in the university curricula, achievement may be evaluated upon the basis of oral and written exams or project related work. 
Austrian Grading scheme:
1 EXCELLENT: Outstanding performance, 2  GOOD: Generally good, but with some errors, 3  SATISFACTORY: Generally sound work with a number of substantial errors, 4  SUFFICIENT: Performance meets the minimum criteria successfully, Completed: Positive performance, where a strict differentiation is not adequate, 
5 UNSATISFACTORY: < 50% Substantial improvement necessary; requirement of further work, not completed:     Negative performance, where a strict differentiation is not adequate.

Hungary, UWH
In Hungary, a five-point scale has been used since 1950. There is one failing grade: 1 – elégtelen (insufficient). In general, the lowest passing mark is either 50% or 60%, or one mark (point) higher. Passing grades are 2 – elégséges (sufficient or pass), 3 – közepes (mediocre or satisfactory), 4 – jó (good) and 5 – jeles (excellent).

Netherlands, VUA
The Dutch grading scale is from 1 through to 10, where 1 is the lowest and 10 the highest grade. A student passes with a grade 6.0 or higher and fails with a grade 5.0 or lower. On average 75% of the students who pass have a grade between 6.5 and 7.5. Less than 5% of the students get a grade 9. Less than 1% get a 10.
 More information on Dutch grading and conversion can be found on the website of the Nuffic:

Romania, BBU
In secondary schools, high schools, and universities, a 10-point scale is used, 5 being the minimum grade for passing. In secondary schools, high schools, and academic institutions, a 10-point scale is used, 5 being the minimum grade for passing.

 Spain, UMA
Spanish universities use two different grading scales. The students' performance is assessed using a 10-point grading scale (